AUTOCLAVE STEAM STERILIZER

An Autoclave is a device to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C or more, typically for 15-20 minutes.

In its most basic form the autoclave is a pressure cooker. Water is heated in a pressurized environment to create steam. Using pressure makes it possible to heat to higher temperatures with less energy. Autoclaves are usually made of steel and have various configurations for removing air prior to pressurization. Downward displacement autoclaves use gravity to remove air. Steam pulsing autoclaves use pulses of steam along with pressurizing and depressurizing to reach optimum pressure. Vacuum pump autoclaves suck air out for pressurization. Superatmospheric autoclaves are a combination of steam pulsing and vacuum pump techniques.Autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, tattooing, body piercing, veterinary science, mycology, dentistry, chiropody and prosthetic fabrication.

Stability Chamber
Autoclave

Typical loads include laboratory glassware, surgical instruments, medical waste, patient care utensils, animal cage bedding, and Lysogeny broth.

A notable growing application of autoclaves is in the pre-disposal treatment and sterilization of waste material, such as pathogenic hospital waste. Machines in this category largely operate under the same principles as the original autoclave in that they are able to neutralize potentially infectious agents by utilizing pressurized steam and superheated water.

How Does an Autoclave Work?

An autoclave sterilizes items by heating them with steam to a very high temperature. Some common temperatures at which autoclaves operate are: 115 degrees C/10 p.s.i., 121 degrees C/15 p.s.i., and 134 degrees C/30 p.s.i. (p.s.i.=pounds per square inch). The temperature, pressure and time of operation depend on the degree of sterilization needed.

What Does an Autoclave Kill bacteria?

An autoclave using standard settings can kill most bacteria, spores, viruses and fungi (all models of Osworld Autoclaves). Most doctor's offices, tattoo parlors, dentist offices and other places where instruments might come in contact with contaminants have a small autoclave on site for disinfection (Osworld Portable Autoclave). Hospitals use larger autoclaves that look similar to industrial dishwashers to sterilize many items at once (Osworld Rectangular/Cylindrical Horizontal Autoclave). Heat kills microorganisms by causing vital proteins to coagulate. The proteins stick together causing fatal damage to the microorganism. An autoclave cooks microorganisms in the same way a pressure cooker cooks food, but at a higher temperature. Autoclaves use steam instead of dry heat because steam can more effectively transmit heat to the microorganisms.

Air Removal

It is very important to ensure that all of the trapped air is removed, as hot air is very poor at achieving sterility. Steam at 134 °C can achieve in 3 minutes the same sterility that hot air at 160 °C takes two hours to achieve. Methods of achieving air removal include:

Downward displacement (or gravity type) - As steam enters the chamber, it fills the upper areas as it is less dense than air. This compresses the air to the bottom, forcing it out through a drain. Often a temperature sensing device is placed in the drain. Only when air evacuation is complete should the discharge stop. Flow is usually controlled through the use of a steam trap or a solenoid valve, but bleed holes are sometimes used, often in conjunction with a solenoid valve. As the steam and air mix it is also possible to force out the mixture from locations in the chamber other than the bottom.

Steam pulsing - Air dilution by using a series of steam pulses, in which the chamber is alternately pressurized and then depressurized to near atmospheric pressure.

Vacuum pumps - Vacuum pumps to suck air or air/steam mixtures from the chamber.

Autoclave Sterilization Graph

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Autoclave Quality Assurance

Sterilization bags/pads often have a "sterilization indicator mark" that typically darkens when the bag/pad has been processed. Comparing the mark on an unprocessed bag to a bag that has been properly cycled will show an obvious visual difference. There are physical, chemical and biological indicators that can be used to ensure an autoclave reaches the correct temperature for the correct amount of time.

Chemical indicators can be found on medical packaging and autoclave tape, and these change color once the correct conditions have been met. This color change indicates that the object inside the package, or under the tape, has been processed. Some computer-controlled autoclaves use an F0 (F-nought) value to control the sterilization cycle. F0 values are set as the number of minutes of equivalent sterilization at 121 °C (250 °F) at 15 psi (100 kPa) above atmospheric pressure for 15 minutes . Since exact temperature control is difficult, the temperature is monitored, and the sterilization time adjusted accordingly

Types of Sterilizers

a) Clinical sterilizer: Designed to process medical devices or medicinal products

b) Laboratory Sterilizers:are designed to process laboratory goods and materials that are neither medical devices nor medicinal products and are not intended for use in the clinical care of patients.

Sterilants:

Sterilizers can also be classified according to the sterilant used to effect sterilization. The commonly used sterilants are:

a) high-temperature steam.
b) dry heat (hot air).
c) low-temperature steam and formaldehyde (LTSF).
d) ethylene oxide (EO).

The High-Temperature Steam is the sterilant of choice because of its superior sterilizing qualities. The various High Temperature Steam Sterilizers that Osworld manufactures is shown herein.

Osworld Premium Model Autoclave – Single Handle – Internal / External Reservoir – Model OAT – SHI / SHE

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Application:
  • For use in Microbiology, QC & Research laboratory – Pharma Industry
  • Double wall type design however has inner chamber for steam, outer as cover.
  • Choose from 2 models Internal Reservoir or External Reservoir.
  • Fully Automatic operation; cycle begins by press of the START button.
  • Initial air purging cycle; at the beginning air is automatically removed from the chamber.
  • Microprocessor based Digital Temperature Indicator Controller Controls temperature / pressure precisely at set value.
  • Temperature Sensor: PT – 100.
  • In built digital timer; timer can be adjusted as per sterilization load requirement, 1 to 99minutes.
  • Automatic steam exhaust at the end of cycle.
  • Low water level heater safeguard.
  • Safety high pressure release valve.
  • Safety high temperature cut off.
  • Working chamber made of stainless steel LM 304 grade.
  • Outer cover made of Mild Steel for Standard model duly powder coated and stainless steel 1mm thick for GMP model, however, inner frame structure of solid chrome plated finish.
  • Lid, flange & bottom sheet also made of stainless steel SS 304. All joints argon welded.
  • Silicon gasket. Heavy duty industrial flange heater.
  • Pressure range: 15 to 30 PSI, factory set at 15 PSI, 15 minutes ster. Cycle time.
  • Temperature Range: 121°C to 134°C.
  • Temperature Resolution: 0.1°C / Temperature Accuracy: ±0.5°C.
  • Pressure gauge 0-50 PSI, safety spring loaded pressure valve, steam release valve.
  • Hydraulically tested at 75PSI.
  • Additional Safety
    i) Pressure Switch made in Europe, CE certified for additional safety. Factory set at 30PSI.
    ii) Vacuum breaker cum lid locking arrangement for locking lid above 80degC.
    iii) Multiple micro-switches to sense lid closure, lid proper latching such that heating won't start if parameters not satisfied.
  • Electrical: 230V / 15A / 50 Hz.
  • Calibration certificate by ERTL – Mumbai with traceability to NPL – New Delhi.
  • Provided with DQ, IQ, OQ, documentation
Optional Accessories offered by Premium Model:
  • Basket
  • Printer Interface (1 Temp + 1 Pressure printing or 3 Temp + 1 Pressure Printing).
  • High Temp Safety Controller.
  • Fo printing.
  • PC software 21CFR Part 11 compliant.
  • Electrical actuator to ensure lid doesn't open under pressure.
  • Electromagnetic door lock for locking lid under pressure. Imported from Europe, patented design, CE marked. Can keep door locked upto 300 Newton pressure.
  • PLC based system with 3.5” Touch Screen display:
    i)Pressure Pulsing: both +ve and –ve pressure pulsing is programmable.
    ii)Assisted Air Cooling: for quick cooling of chamber.
    iii)Vacuum Pump system for automatic pre/post vacuuming with pulsing.
    iv)Drying cycle.
    v)Automatic Water Fill – automatic water filling in reservoir
Size of Useable Chamber Overall Dimension Capacity Rating Model No. For Standard Model Model No. For
GMP Model
in cms DiaxHt in cms LXWXH Litres KW Outer Mild Steel and Inner S.S. Complete Unit of SS 304 Grade
35x55 45x64x92 52 3.0 OAT-SHI/E*-s 52 OAT-SHI/E*-G 52
35x66 51x69x102 65 3.0 OAT-SHI/E*-s 65
OAT-SHI/E*-G 65
35x75 62x73x110 75 4.0 OAT-SHI/E*-s 75
OAT-SHI/E*-G 75
45x60 62x73x115 95 4.0 OAT-SHI/E*-s 95
OAT-SHI/E*-G 95
45x75 62x73x125 125 4.0 OAT-SHI/E*-s 125
OAT-SHI/E*-G 125
55x75 82x92x125 175 3.0x2 OAT-SHI/E*-s 175
OAT-SHI/E*-G 175
Osworld Fully Automatic or GMP Model Autoclave – Model OAT-G
Application:
  • For use in Microbiology, QC & Research laboratory – Pharma Industry.
  • Double wall design has single chamber for steam and water.
  • Fully Automatic operation; cycle begins by press of the START button.
  • Initial air purging cycle; at the beginning air is automatically removed from the chamber.
  • Microprocessor based Digital Temperature Indicator Controller. Controls temperature / pressure precisely at set value.
  • In built adjusted digital timer; programmable as per sterilization load requirement.
  • Automatic steam exhaust at the end of cycle.
  • Electrical Low water level heater safeguard.
  • All parts of stainless steel 304 grade. All joints argon welded.
  • Jointless silicon gasket. Heavy duty industrial flange heater.
  • Pressure range: 15 PSI. Temperature Range: 121°C to 125°C.
  • Lid fitting pressure gauge, safety spring loaded pressure valve, steam release valve.
  • Hydraulically tested at 60PSI.
  • Foot lifting arrangement included for capacity 95ltrs and above.
  • Electrical: 230V / 15A / 50 Hz.
  • Calibration certificate by ERTL – Mumbai with traceability to NPL – New Delhi.
  • Provided with DQ, IQ, OQ, documentation.

Size of Useable Chamber Overall Dimension Capacity Rating Foot Lifting Arrangement GMP
in cms DiaxHt in cms LXWXH Litres KW To Lift Lid. Model No.
30x50 45x64x92 35 2.0 No OAT G - 35
35x55 51x69x102 52 3.0 No
OAT G - 52
45x60 62x73x110 95 4.0 Yes
OAT G - 95
45x75 62x73x125 125 4.0 Yes
OAT G - 125
55x75 62x73x125 125 4.0 Yes
OAT G-175

Optional Accesories offered by Fully Automatic model
  • Basket
  • Printer Interface (1 Temp + 1 Pressure printing or 3 Temp + 1 Pressure Printing)
  • High Temp Safety Controller
  • Fo printing PC software 21CFR Part 11 compliant
Osworld Horizontal Autoclave – LARGE AUTOCLAVES Front Loading– Rectangular Model SLIDING DOOR TYPE (VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL SLIDING) Model OAT-H-SL
Opening; Sliding (vertical/horizontal)

Front opening

2 Working pressure
1.2 to 1.7 kgf / cm g
Working temperature

121°C to 134°C

Material of Construction
Inner and outer
Inner working chamber

Stainless steel 316 grade of 6mm thickness

Chamber flange
Stainless steel 304 grade of 10mm thickness
Steam jacket

MS Boiler / SS 304 of 10 mm thickness

Door

Thick Stainless Steel door of 15mm thick

For Double Door Option
Two thick SS doors of 15mm thickness, one opening in sterile area and the other opening in non sterile area
Outer cabinet                 

Stainless steel 304 grade of 1mm thick - mirror finish

 
Other fittings
Piping
Stainless steel 316 grade good quality seamless
Fittings
Stainless steel 316 grade with B.S.P thread
Insulation
Rock wool slabs 50mm thick
Gasket
Silicon jointless
Optional Accessories :
  • S.S. Loading carriage (1 no.) & S.S. Transfer trolley (2 Nos).
  • Vacuum Pump water immersion type.
  • Semi-Automatic model with Printing facility (date, time, temperature and pressure) on EPSON 80 column dot matrix printer (printer not supplied).
  • Datalogger: 8 channel with Printer Interface/PC software. • Thermograph Circular type, single channel.
  • Interlocking system for Double Door models: When one door opened the other cannot be opened.
  • Flush mounting system: Increases the aesthetics of the equipment by having a Stainless Steel Sheet on the Sterile side of the equipment flushed with the wall.
  • Fully automatic cycle through PLC (PLC with computer based system with Printer).
    The system is equipped with a PC based Controlled Process Management System. The process is programmable for selecting:
    i) Number of pulses, vacuum strength for pulse, sterilization time, operating temperature & pressure, drying time & post vacuum strength- all these parameters selectable & programmable as per requirement.
    ii) Fully Automatic operation.
    iii) Self diagnostic system is incorporated in microprocessor programming & fault / error message with indication & alarm on system failure.
    iv) Manual operating arrangement is also provided in case of auto system failure for emergency use.
    v) Equipped with a printer for printing key process parameters like name of organization, batch no., date, time, no. of pulsing time of pulsing, temperature sterilization holding period, pressure, post vacuum & cycle over for every sterilization process and periodically at an interval of one minutes (variable) using a dot-matrix printer.
Size available

Inner chamber dimensions:
a) 450 mm x 450 mm x 900 mm (W X H X D) = 180 liters
b) 600 mm x 600 mm x 900 mm (W x H x D ) = 320 liters
c) 600 mm x 600 mm x 1200 mm (W x H x D ) = 430 liters
d) 600 mm x 600 mm x 1500 mm (W X H X D) = 540 liters
e) 600 mm x 900 mm x 1200 mm (W X H X D) = 645 liters
f) 600 mm x 900 mm x 1500 mm (W X H X D) = 810 liters

Osworld Horizontal Autoclave – LARGE AUTOCLAVES Front Loading– Cylindrical / Rectangular Model RADIAL LOCKING TYPE Model OAT-H
Opening
Front opening
2 Working pressure

1.2 to 1.7 kgf / cm g

Working temperature
121°C to 134°C
Material of Construction
Inner and outer
Inner working chamber
Stainless steel 316 grade of 6mm thickness
Chamber flange
Stainless steel 304 grade of 10mm thickness
Steam jacket
MS Boiler / SS 304 of 10 mm thickness
Door  
Thick Stainless Steel door of 15mm thick
For Double Door Option
Two thick SS doors of 15mm thickness, one opening in sterile area and the other opening in non sterile area
Outer cabinet 
Stainless steel 304 grade of 1mm thick - mirror finish

Other fittings                 

Piping
Stainless steel 316 grade good quality seamless
Fittings        
Stainless steel 316 grade with B.S.P thread
Radial locking assembly

MS chrome plated or SS with CI lock with radial arm or Sliding Door arrangement.

Stand   
MS / SS round pipe
Insulation
Rock wool slabs 50mm thick
Gasket

Silicon jointless

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Optional Accessories :
  • S.S. Loading carriage (1 no.) & S.S. Transfer trolley (2 Nos).
  • Vacuum Pump water immersion type.
  • Semi-Automatic model with Printing facility (date, time, temperature and pressure) on EPSON 80 column dot matrix printer (printer not supplied).
  • Datalogger: 8 channel with Printer Interface/PC software. • Thermograph Circular type, single channel.
  • Interlocking system for Double Door models: When one door opened the other cannot be opened.
  • Flush mounting system: Increases the aesthetics of the equipment by having a Stainless Steel Sheet on the Sterile side of the equipment flushed with the wall.
  • Fully automatic cycle through PLC (PLC with computer based system with Printer).
    The system is equipped with a PC based Controlled Process Management System. The process is programmable for selecting:
    i) Number of pulses, vacuum strength for pulse, sterilization time, operating temperature & pressure, drying time & post vacuum strength- all these parameters selectable & programmable as per requirement.
    ii) Fully Automatic operation.
    iii) Self diagnostic system is incorporated in microprocessor programming & fault / error message with indication & alarm on system failure.
    iv) Manual operating arrangement is also provided in case of auto system failure for emergency use.
    v) Equipped with a printer for printing key process parameters like name of organization, batch no., date, time, no. of pulsing time of pulsing, temperature sterilization holding period, pressure, post vacuum & cycle over for every sterilization process and periodically at an interval of one minutes (variable) using a dot-matrix printer.
Size Available : For Round Model

a) 400 mm x 600 mm (D x H) = 75 liters
b) 400 mm x 750 mm (D x H) = 95 liters
c) 400 mm x 900 mm (D x H) = 110 liters
d) 500 mm x 1200 mm (D x H) = 235 liters
e) 600 mm x 900 mm (D x H) = 255 liters
f) 600 mm x 1200 mm (D x H) = 340 liters
g) 750 mm x 1200 mm (D x H) = 530 liters

Size available : For Rectangular Model
Inner chamber dimensions:

a) 450 mm x 450 mm x 900 mm (W X H X D) = 180 liters
b) 600 mm x 600 mm x 900 mm (W x H x D) = 320 liters
c) 600 mm x 600 mm x 1200 mm (W x H x D) = 430 liters
d) 600 mm x 600 mm x 1500 mm (W X H X D) = 540 liters
e) 600 mm x 900 mm x 1200 mm (W X H X D) = 645 liters
f) 600 mm x 900 mm x 1500 mm (W X H X D) = 810 liters
g) 750 mm x 750 mm x 1500 mm (W x H x D) = 840 liters
h) **900 mm x 900 mm x 1500 mm (W x H x D) = 1215 liters
i) **1200 mm x 1200 mm x 1500 mm (W x H x D) = 2160 liters


** For size (h) and (i) boiler not provided, steam taken from factory boiler.

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